Impacts of Electric Vehicle charging under electricity market operationsLink here:
The Irish government set a target in 2008 that 10% of all vehicles in the transport fleet be powered by electricity by 2020. Similar electric vehicle targets have been introduced in other countries. In this study the effects of 213,561 electric vehicles on the operation of the single wholesale electricity market for the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland is investigated. A model of Ireland’s electricity market in 2020 is developed using the power systems market model called PLEXOS for power systems. The amount of CO2 emissions associated with charging the EVs and the impacts with respect to Ireland’s target for renewable energy in transport is also quantified. A single generation portfolio and two different charging scenarios,arising from a peak and off-peak charging profile are considered. Results from the study confirm that offpeak charging is more beneficial than peak charging and that charging EVs will contribute 1.45% energy supply to the 10% renewable energy in transport target. The net CO2 reductions are 147 and 210 kt CO2 respectively.

Modelling the impact of EVs on electricity generation, costs and CO2 emissions: Assessing the impact of different charging regimes and future generation profiles for Ireland in 2025
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This paper focuses on the impact of electric vehicles on electricity generation in Ireland in 2025 based on five alternative generation portfolios. The year 2025 was selected for assessment due to the information on the composition of the five generation portfolios from Eirgrid the system operator in Ireland being provided. Detailed market simulations were undertaken on the five possible generation portfolios to assess the impact of the Government targets for electric vehicles on the generation costs, emissions, generation stack and the cost to load of this additional demand. This paper also studied the impact between a standard and least cost electric vehicle loading regime to ascertain the benefits that could be achieved. The results show that gas will be the dominant source of electricity generation to load electric vehicles and that wind as an electricity source will experience a minor reduction in curtailment, with the least cost charging profile showing a more pronounced reduction. The capital benefits of the Standard and Least Cost EV load are found to be negligible. The portfolios studied generated CO2 emissions per kilometre between 52 and 70 gCO2/km. All portfolios with the exception of coal were found to comply with EU regulation 443/2009.

Electric vehicles; Electricity generation; Electricity market modelling